1846: Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75, 00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule. Kashmir Valley is a Muslim majority region speaking the Kashmiri language and a composite cultural identity called 'kashmiriyat' transcending religious barriers; the people are hospitable and engage in Sufi tradition.
1931: The movement against the Maharaja Hari Singh begins; it is brutally suppressed by the State forces.
1932: Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sets up the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference to fight for Kashmiri freedom from the Maharaja's rule, which would eventually become the National Conference in 1939.
The Glancy Commission appointed by the Maharaja publishes a report in April 1932, confirming the existence of the grievances of the State's subjects and suggests recommendations providing for equitable representation of all subjects in the State's services; Maharaja accepts these recommendations but delays implementation, leading to another agitation in 1934; Maharaja grants a Constitution providing a Legislative Assembly for the people, but the Assembly turns out to be powerless.
1946: National Conference launches Quit Kashmir movement demanding abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar and restoration of sovereignty to the people of Kashmir. Abdullah is arrested.
1947: On 15 August, the Indian subcontinent becomes independent. Kashmir signs Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. Rulers of Princely States are encouraged to accede their States to either Dominion - India or Pakistan, taking into account factors such as geographical contiguity and the wishes of their people. The Maharaja of Kashmir delays his decision in an effort to remain independent.
In theory, rulers were allowed to accede their States to either Dominion, irrespective of the wishes of their people; but as a practical matter, they were encouraged to accede to the geographically contiguous Dominion, taking into account the wishes of their people and in cases where a dispute arose, it was decided to settle the question of accession by a plebiscite, a scheme proposed and accepted by India. Being a Muslim majority State and contiguous to Pakistan, Kashmir was expected to accede to Pakistan; since the Hindu Ruler acceded instead to India, a dispute arose in the case of Kashmir.
In 1948, India imposed and won a plebiscite in the case of Junagadh, which had a Hindu majority ruled by a Muslim Ruler who acceded to Pakistan; However, in the case of Kashmir, the mirror image of Junagadh, India did not hold a plebiscite; Pakistan applied its own share of double standards by having divergent positions on Kashmir and Junagadh, insisting it get both.
Barring National Conference, other political parties including the Muslim Conference and the Chiefs of Gilgit region, advise the Maharaja against acceding to the Indian Union. While in prison, Sheikh Abdullah writes a letter to a friend in Jammu, which is published in the Congress press, in favour of accession of Kashmir to India. Abdullah is released from prison on 29 September, in response to pressure from India.
On 22 October, thousands of Pathan tribesmen from Pakistan invade Kashmir. The tribesmen engage in looting and killing along the way. The tribesmen and the Poonch rebels are unofficially supported by various individuals and high ranking officials in Pakistan including Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and Chief Minister of North West Frontier Province. India accuses Pakistan of violating the Standstill Agreement with Kashmir by disrupting the supply links and of engaging in aggression by sending in the tribesmen. Pakistan refutes the charges.
1947: The Maharaja of the State of Jammu and Kashmir signs the Instrument of Accession (IOA) on 26 October, acceding the 75% majority Muslim region to the Indian Union, following invasion by the tribesmen from Pakistan, according to the 1948 Indian White Paper; India accepts the accession, regarding it provisional until such time as the will of the people can be ascertained by a plebiscite, since Kashmir was recognized as a disputed territory. [A plebiscite is the direct vote of all members of an electorate on an important public question being referred to them, in this case accession of Kashmir to India or Pakistan.] It should be noted that the IOA itself does not specify any provisionally or conditionality of accession, while the White Paper specifies it clearly, thus creating a conflict between strict legal interpretation and repeated official promise made to the people of Kashmir.
The Indian army enters the state on 27 October to repel the invaders. On 27-28 October, Pathan tribesmen engage in looting and killing a large number of people in Baramula, which results in the exodus of over 10,000 residents. Sheikh Abdullah endorses the accession as ad-hoc which would be ultimately decided by a plebiscite and is appointed head of the emergency administration. Pakistan disputes that the accession is illegal given the Maharaja acted under duress and that he had no right to sign an agreement with India when the standstill agreement with Pakistan is still in force.
In November 1947, India proposes that Pakistan withdraw all its troops first, as a precondition for a plebiscite, which Pakistan rejects. Pakistan proposes simultaneous withdrawal of all troops followed by a plebiscite under international auspices, which India rejects. Pakistan sends regular forces to Kashmir and the first war over Kashmir breaks out.
1948: India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on 1 January.
1949: On 1 January, a ceasefire between Indian and Pakistani forces leaves India in control of most of the valley, as well as Jammu and Ladakh, while Pakistan gains control of part of Kashmir including what Pakistan calls "Azad" Kashmir and Northern territories. Pakistan claims it is merely supporting an indigenous rebellion in "Azad" Kashmir and Northern Territories against repression, while India terms that territory as POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir).
1949: On 5 January 1949, UNCIP (United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan) resolution states that the question of the accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through a free and impartial plebiscite. As per the 1948 and 1949 UNCIP resolutions, both countries accept the principle, that Pakistan secures the withdrawal of Pakistani intruders followed by withdrawal of Pakistani and Indian forces, as a basis for the formulation of a Truce agreement whose details are to be arrived in future, followed by a plebiscite; However, both countries fail to arrive at a Truce agreement due to differences in interpretation of the procedure for and extent of demilitarization one of them being whether the Azad Kashmiri army is to be disbanded during the truce stage or the plebiscite stage.
1949: On 17 October, the Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the Constitution, ensuring a special status and internal autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir with Indian jurisdiction in Kashmir limited to the three areas agreed in the IOA, namely, defense, foreign affairs and communications.
1951: First post-independence elections. The UN passes a resolution to the effect that such elections do not substitute a plebiscite, because a plebiscite offers the option of choosing between India and Pakistan. Sheikh Abdullah wins, mostly unopposed. There are widespread charges of election rigging which continue to plague all the subsequent elections.
1947-1952: Sheikh Abdullah signs Delhi Agreement with the Central government on Centre-State relationships, providing for autonomy of the State within India and of regions within the State; Article 370 is confirmed and the State is allowed to have its own flag.
1952: Jawaharlal Nehru in the Lok Sabha on August 7 - "...Ultimately - I say this with all deference to this Parliament - the decision will be made in the hearts and minds of the men and women of Kashmir; neither in this Parliament, nor in the United Nations nor by anybody else"
1953-54: The governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a Plebiscite Administrator by the end of April 1954. In August 1953, Govt. is dismissed. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed is installed in power, which then gets the accession formally ratified in 1954.
1956-1959: On 30 October 1956, the state Constituent Assembly adopts a constitution for the state declaring it an integral part of the Indian Union
In April 1959, permit system for entry to the State is abolished. In October, the State Constition is amended to extend jurisdiction of Union Election Commission to the State and bring its High Court at par with those in the rest of India.
1962: India and China go to war on account of a border dispute in the Ladakh region; at the end of war, China occupies 37,555 sq. kms from Indian held Kashmir at Aksai-chin and Demochok in Ladakh. In December, 5180 sq. kms are conditionally taken over by China at Shaksgam in Northern Areas of Kashmir under Pakistan control.
1963: Violence and demonstrations across the Valley occur on 27 December when the holy relic is found missing from the Hazratbal shrine.
1964: The holy relic is recovered on 4 January. Talks take place on 29 April between Sheikh Abdullah and the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Sheikh Abdullah goes to Pakistan on 25 May, at Nehru's instance, for talks with Field Marshal Ayub Khan. Nehru passes away on 27 May and the talks get stranded.
1965-1966: In early 1965, India and Pakistan engage in a series of clashes in the Rann of Kutch which ends in a ceasefire on 30 June under British mediation.
In Aug 1965, Pakistan undertakes Operation Gibraltar and sends in a few thousand armed infiltrators across the cease-fire line, and incidents of violence increase in Kashmir valley. A full Indo-Pakistani war breaks out which ends in a ceasefire on 23 September. In January 1966, Tashkent Declaration is signed by both countries agreeing to revert to pre-1965 position, under Russian mediation. Pakistan supported guerrilla groups in Kashmir increase their activities after the ceasefire.
Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Butt form another Plebiscite Front with an armed wing called the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front (NLF) in Azad Kashmir, with the objective of freeing Kashmir from Indian occupation. Butt crosses into the Valley in June 1966 and engages in clashes with the Indian army. He is arrested and sentenced to death in 1968 but escapes to Azad Kashmir with help from the local people.
1967-1968: In April 1967, Jammu Autonomy Forum is formed with the objective of regional autonomy. In November 1968, Gajendragadkar Commission recommends statutory regional development boards.
1971: Pakistan resorts to genocide in the erstwhile East Pakistan to suppress the large scale uprising by the people against West Pakistan authoritarianism. To divert public opinion all over the world Pakistan resorts to air strikes against India. Indo-Pakistan war begins on 03 December. Pakistani forces surrender in two weeks and East Pakistan is liberated to give birth to Bangladesh. Status quo is maintained on the western front between India and Pakistan.
1971: An Indian Airlines plane, 'Ganga', en route from Srinagar to New Delhi, is hijacked in January and diverted to Lahore and later blown up after allowing passengers to leave. Maqbool Butt claims responsibility.
India backs send troops to East Pakistan to defend its secessionist movement against the repressive Pakistani army. Pakistan launches an attack from the West including Kashmir. India defeats Pakistan and East Pakistan become independent Bangladesh. The cease-fire line in Kashmir becomes the 'Line of Control'(LOC). Pakistan holds India responsible for the dismemberment of their country.
1972: India and Pakistan sign the Simla Agreement in July, which has a clause that the final settlement of Kashmir will be decided bilaterally in the future and that both the sides shall respect the LOC.
1974: In November, Kashmir Accord is signed by G.Parthasarathy for Indira Gandhi and Mirza Afzal Beg for Sheikh Abdullah, who is out of power at that time. The Accord retains Kashmir's special status, but the state is termed as a 'constituent unit of the Union of India'.
1975: Sheikh Abdullah is sworn is as chief minister on 25 February with the support of the Congress Legislature party.
1976: Maqbool Butt is arrested on his return to the Valley; Amanullah Khan moves to England and NLF becomes Jammu and Kashmir liberation Front (JKLF).
1977: Sheikh Abdullah resigns after the Congress party withdraws support on 27 March. The Assembly is dissolved. On 30 June, the state goes to elections. The elections give the National Conference a convincing victory in assembly elections in June.
1979: The Sikri Commission is appointed to inquire into regional grievances in J&K.